Toby N. Carlson

Toby N. Carlson

  • Professor of Meteorology Emeritus
505 Walker Building
University Park, PA 16802
Phone: (814) 863-1582


  1. BS, MS MIT
  2. PhD Imperial College, University of London, England.


Links to various publications and documents

 Mid-Latitude Weather Systems  

Mid-Latitude Weather Systems

Publish Date: 10/11/12 
Paperback Edition: $49.95
Instructor copies also available for $10.00
Purchase book at  Penn State University Press


Dr. Carlson is currently retired. His interests remain in remote measurement of regional-scale soil moisture and other boundary layer and surface parameters using satellites. His work extends to the modeling of plants and the way they control transpiration, and in urbanization/deforestation as viewed by satellite. He has written two books, the first is entitled "Mid Latitude Weather Systems" which is to be republished by Penn State Press, and the second "An Observers Guide to Clouds and Weather, is being published in 2014 by the AMS, which explains the factors responsible for the weather patterns, how these patterns manifest themselves on weather maps and how cloud observations can be used to understand the current weather an aid the forecaster in predicting the weather.

Research Interests

Satellite remote sensing applications to regional planning, modeling of evapotranspiration over plant canopies, land surface processes.

Teaching Interests

Bioclimatology, boundary layer meteorology, and remote sensing.

Selected Publications

The following represent a selection of representative  journal articles out of a total of about 90.

  • Arthur, S. T., T. N. Carlson and K. C. Clarke, 2003: Satellite and ground-based microclimate and hydrologic analyses into a regional urban planning model. Remote Sensing of Environment, 86, 385-400.
  • Chang, H. and T. N. Carlson, 2004: Patterns of phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations in small central Pennsylvania streams. The Pennsylvania Geographer.
  • Jiang, L., S. Islam, T. N. Carlson e 2004: Toward the uncertainty of surface fluxes estimation and implications for using a simplified approach with remote sensing. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing.
  • Carlson, T. N., 2004: Analysis and prediction of surface runoff in an urbanizaing watershed using satellite imagery. Journal of the American Water Resources Assn.  [View Paper]
  • Carlson, T. N., 2006: Deficiencies in the present funding process in meteorology, Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 87, 567-572.
  • Carlson, T. N., 2007: An Overview of the "Triangle Method" for Estimating Surface Evapotranspiration and Soil Moisture from Satellite Imagery. Sensors, 7, 1612-1629.
  • Carlson, T. N., 2007: Impervious Surface Area and its Effect on Water Abundance and Water Quality. Chapter 17, Part 5, Remote Sensing of Impervious Surfaces, Quhio Wang, Ed.
  • Haase, A. T., C. N. Cudaback, and T. N. Carlson, 2008: Development of the Watershed Evaluation Tool using remotely sensed data. The  Pennsylvania Geographer, 45, 3-20.
  • Carlson, T. N., 2008:  Land use and impervious surface area change by county in Pennsylvania (1985-2000) as seen in satellite imagery.  Pennsylvania Geographer, 46, 56-70. [Acrobat PDF icon View Paper]
  • Carlson, T. N., 2008: Current funding practices in academic science stifle creativity. Review of Policy Research (Dupont Summit issue), 25, 631-642.

  • Lynn. B. H., T. N. Carlson, C. Rosenzweig, R. Goldberg, L. Druyan, J. Cox, S. Gaffin, L. Parshall, and K. Civerolo, 2009: A modification of the NOAH LSM to simulate heat mitigation strategies in the New York City metropolitan area. J. Appl. Meteorology and Climatology, 48, 199-216.
  • Petropoulos, G., T. N. Carlson, M. J. Wooster, 2009: An overview of the use of the SimSphere soil Vegetation atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model for the study of land-atmosphere interactions. Sensors, 9, 4286-4308.
  • Petropoulos, G. T., M. J. Wooster, T. N. Carlson, M. C. Kennedy, M. Scholze, 2009: A global Bayesian sensitivity analysis of the 1-d SimSphere soil, vegetation, atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model using Gaussian model emulation. Ecological Modeling, 220, 2427-2440.
  • Petropoulos, G., T. N. Carlson, M. J. Wooster, S. Islam, 2009: A review of Ts/VI remote sensing based methods for the retrieval of land surface energy fluxes and soil surface moisture.  Progress in Physical Geography, 33,.224–250.
  • Petropoulos, G. P.,  and T. N. Carlson, 2010: Retrievals of turbulent heat fluxes and surface soil water content by remote sensing. Chapter 19 in Advances in Environmental Remote Sensing: Sensors, Algorithms, and Applications. Taylor and Francis, Q. Weng, Ed.