Tropical Meteorology

The study of atmospheric structure and behavior in the areas astride the Equator, roughly between 30° north and south latitude. The weather and climate of the tropics involve phenomena such as trade winds, hurricanes, intertropical convergence zones, jet streams, monsoons, and the El Niño Southern Oscillation.

In the News

Hurricane season is never over for Penn State meteorology professor, Jenni Evans


People specializing in this area


Jenni L. Evans

  • Extratropical transition (ET) of tropical cyclones
  • Tropical cyclogenesis and African Easterly Waves (AEWs)
  • Subtropical cyclone genesis and evolution
  • Factors governing TC intensity and links to the TC boundary layer

Gregory S. Jenkins

Weather hazards in the form of mesoscale convective systems, Saharan dust storms and tropical cyclones in the Eastern Atlantic pose a threat to continental, coastal zones and the Island Nation of Cape Verde.  Tropical cyclone formation over the Eastern Atlantic also poses a threat to downstream communities of the Caribbean, the United States and Central America.  Limited real-time weather forecasts and observations do not provide the necessary protection or provide a complete picture of how vulnerable communities in West Africa are being impacted.     

  • Jenkins, G. S., and A. Pratt, 2008: Saharan dust, lightning and tropical cyclones in the eastern tropical Atlantic during NAMMA-06, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L12804, doi:10.1029/2008GL033979.
  • Jenkins, G. S., A. S. Pratt, and A. Heymsfield, 2008: Possible linkages between Saharan dust and tropical cyclone rain band invigoration in the eastern Atlantic during NAMMA-06, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08815, doi:10.1029/2008GL034072.
  • Jenkins, G. S., P. Kucera, E. Joseph, J. Fuentes, A. Gaye, J. Gerlach, F. Roux, N. Viltard, M. Papazzoni, A. Protat, D. Bouniol, A.  Reynolds, J. Arnault, D. Badiane, F. Kebe, M. Camara, S. Sall, 2010:  Coastal Observations of Weather Features in Senegal during the AMMA SOP-3 period, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D18108, doi:10.1029/2009JD013022.
  • Chiao S. and G. S. Jenkins, 2010: Numerical Investigations on the Formation of Tropical Storm Debby during NAMMA-06, Wea. Forecasting, 25, 866–884. doi: 10.1175/2010WAF2222313.1
  • Drame, M, Jenkins, G. S., Camara, M., Robjhon, M., 2011. Observations and simulation of a Saharan air layer event with a midtropospheric dust layer at Dakar, Senegal, 6–7 July 2010J. Geophys. Res., 116, doi:10.1029/2011JD016368.
  • Diokhane, A. M, Jenkins, G. S., Manga, N., Drame, M. S., 2015: Linkages between Observed, Modeled Saharan dust loading and Meningitis in Senegal during 2012 and 2013, Int J Biometeorol DOI 10.1007/s00484-015-1051-5