Synoptic Meteorology Laboratory

Meteorology 411: Synoptic Meteorology Laboratory

Spring 2019 

COURSE DESCRIPTION.  Techniques for understanding and analyzing synoptic-scale weather situations, with an introduction to weather forecasting. 

INSTRUCTOR. Dr. Jon Nese, 518 Walker, 863-4076,, Twitter: @jmnese

OFFICE HOURS. Mon 9:00-10:00AM, Tue 3:30-4:30PM, Thu 8:00-9:00AM 

WHEN / WHERE. Lecture: Tuesday & Thursday, 12:05 - 1:20 PM, 215 Hammond

Lab: Wednesday & Friday, 10:10 - 11:00 AM, 607 Walker      

Matthew Williams,
Chris Hartman,                                       

PREREQUISITES.  Meteo 101 or Meteo 201; Math 230 or Math 231; Prerequisite or concurrent:  Meteo 421 and Meteo 431 (Note:  Meteo 411 is required for all Meteorology majors) 

ENROLLMENT POLICY.  Students who do not meet the prerequisites may be dis-enrolled during the first 10-day free add-drop period after being informed in writing by the instructor.  If you have not completed the listed prerequisites, then consult with the instructor.  Students who re-enroll after being dis-enrolled according to this policy are in violation of the Student Code of Conduct. 

MATERIALS.  At times (especially for homework), you will need color pencils.  I don’t require a textbook, but two that would be suitable for this course are on reserve in the EMS library:

  • Mid-latitude Synoptic Meteorology, by Gary Lackmann
  • Mid-latitude Weather Systems, by Toby Carlson 


  • To demonstrate skills for the analysis of synoptic-scale surface and upper-air observations of the atmosphere.
  • To demonstrate familiarity with the principles underlying the structure, development, and evolution of synoptic-scale weather systems. 


  • To demonstrate knowledge of the Norwegian cyclone model and its use as a conceptual framework for the analysis of atmospheric structure at the synoptic scale.
  • To demonstrate knowledge of the methods for determining vertical motion in the atmosphere qualitatively.
  • To demonstrate knowledge of the role of the upper-level flow (e.g., the jet stream) in the development of extratropical cyclones.
  • To demonstrate the ability to apply quasi-geostrophic theory to the development and evolution of fronts and extratropical cyclones

CLASS NOTES: I will usually place lecture materials on Canvas prior to class. Printing these materials before class will greatly facilitate your note-taking. Lecture notes will be the main resource for this course, along with information gleaned from laboratory exercises and map discussions.  I will frequently use   and, of course, the Penn State e-wall .

ASSESSMENT.  There will be two exams during the semester, in class on Thursday February 14 and Thursday April 4.  The final exam will be scheduled by the university during finals week. There will be a quiz each Friday except during the first week, the weeks of the exams, and the last week (for a total of 11 quizzes).  I will drop your lowest quiz grade.

Also, there will be numerous laboratory assignments.  You will always have at least two days to complete a lab. There will be an immediate 25% penalty for any lab handed in late, a 50% penalty after six hours, and no credit will be given for labs handed in more than 24 hours late.  Neatness, organization, technical soundness, spelling and grammar are important!  You may work together on the labs, but the work you submit must be uniquely your own (see Academic Integrity policy).

Each student (as part of a team) will also give two weather briefings during the semester (details to come).  The weather briefings will be worth (cumulatively) 9% of your final grade, so THEY SHOULD BE GIVEN THE PROPER ATTENTION.

GRADING. The breakdown of your course grade, and grading scale, are as follows: 

Component | % of Course Grade                         

  • Exam 1: 13%
  • Exam 2: 15%
  • Final Exam: 20%
  • Quizzes: 10%
  • Labs: 25%
  • Weather Briefings: 9%
  • Forecasting Contest: 4%
  • **Attendance / Participation: 4%

The  “+”  and  “-“  system may be used when appropriate

Letter Grade | Average

  • A: >= 90%
  • B: 80 – 90%
  • C: 70 – 80%
  • D: 60 – 70 %

**  Includes your contribution to “Weather Story & Image of the Day” 

ATTENDANCE POLICY   This course abides by the Penn State Attendance Policy E-11: , and Conflict Exam Policy 44-35: . Please also see the Illness Verification Policy there.  

COURSE COPYRIGHT.  All course materials that students receive or have online access to are protected by copyright laws. Students may use course materials and make copies for their own use, but unauthorized distribution and/or uploading of materials without the instructor’s express permission is strictly prohibited. University Policy AD 40, the University Policy Recording of Classroom Activities and Note Taking Services addresses this issue. Students who engage in the unauthorized distribution of copyrighted materials may be held in violation of the University’s Code of Conduct and/or Federal and State laws.

Course Outline 

Weeks | Topics | Pages in Lackmann 

  • 1-3
    • Introduction to synoptic scale 1-3
    • Essentials: gradient, advection, equations, fronts 4-11
    • Hydrostatic approximation 4-11
  • 3-5
    • Cross sections, potential temperature 3
    • Adiabatic method of obtaining omega
    • Thickness and applications 11-18
    • Thermal wind balance 11-18
    • Blocking, zonal indices
  • 5-7
    • Mass continuity, diffluence/confluence 8
    • Surface pressure tendency equation
    • Satellite and radar imagery
    • Numerical weather prediction 252-255; 294-300
    • Predictability and ensemble forecasting 287-294
  • 8-9
    • Ageostrophic wind, gradient wind, jet streaks 37-38
    • Vorticity and vorticity advection 18-24
  • 10-12
    • Midlatitude cyclones, conveyor belts 119-126
    • Self-development 105-108
    • Characteristics of fronts, occlusions  131-134; 148-157
    • Frontogenesis equation 135-140
  • 13-15     
    • Quasigeostrophic (QG) theory 35-56
    • QG vorticity, thermodynamic, omega equations
    • Cyclogenesis in context of QG theory
    • Potential vorticity & applications 79-93
    • Synoptic Setup for Severe Weather 

Instructor’s Philosophy.  This course is intended to provide a solid foundation for you to apply to forecasting.  As an outlet for aspiring forecasters, there will be a forecasting contest beginning mid-semester. The top two finishers will be awarded extra points on their final course grade (details forthcoming). 

Regardless of your interest in forecasting, we will talk about the day-to-day weather in this class.  Therefore, I recommend you spend a few minutes each day at the electronic map wall, immersing yourself in the weather – past, present, and future. 

“The principle task of any meteorological institution of education and research must be to bridge the gap between the mathematician and the practical man, that is, to make the weather man realize the value of a modest theoretical education and induce the theoretical man to take an occasional glance at the weather map.” Carl Gustav Rossby 1934 

ACADEMIC INTEGRITY.  Integrity is fundamental not only to one’s experience at the university, but remains essential throughout one’s career.  For information about the EMS Policy, which this course adopts, see:  Here’s a brief interpretation of that integrity policy, as it applies specifically to this course:  

You may never copy answers from another person and present them as your own.  This applies to quizzes, exams, and problem sets.  You are allowed to discuss the problem sets with other students, but the work you turn in must be your own, in your own words.  Suspicion of copying on problem sets will result in an immediate 50% reduction for the first offense, and an F for the course on the second offense.  Cheating on exams or quizzes will result in an immediate F for the course.  If in doubt about how the academic integrity policy applies to a specific situation, students are encouraged to consult with the instructor. 

ACCOMMODATIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES.  Penn State welcomes students with disabilities into the University's programs. Every Penn State campus has an office for students with disabilities. The Student Disability Resources (SDR) website provides contact information for every Penn State campus: ( ). For further information, please visit the Student Disability Resources website (  In order to receive consideration for reasonable accommodations, you must contact the appropriate disability services office, participate in an intake interview, and provide documentation based on the documentation guidelines. 

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Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS) at University Park: 814-863-0395
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